Table 1

Antibiotics and risk of C difficile infection

High risk Medium risk Low risk
CephalosporinsAmpicillin/amoxycillinAminoglycosides
ClindamycinCo-trimoxazoleMetronidazole
Macrolides
Tetracyclines
Anti-pseudomonal penicillins  ± β-lactamase inhibitor
Quinolones
Rifampicin
Vancomycin
  • These subdivisions may be prone to bias because of the relative frequency of use of agents and the complexity of interaction between antibiotic exposure, C difficile, and other factors.