Case-control studies (n = 9) | |
---|---|
(South Africa, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Tanzania, Gambia (2), Brazil, India, Argentina) | |
6 adjusted for confounders | n=4311 |
3 not significant | Odds ratios = 2.2–9.9 |
Cohort studies (n = 4) | |
(Nepal, Kenya, Gambia (2)) | |
2 adjusted for confounders | n=910 |
1 not significant | Odds ratios = 2.2–6.0 |
Case-fatality study (n = 1) | |
(Nigeria) | |
Hospitalised patients | n=103 |
Odds ratio = 4.8 | |
Developed countries (n = 2) | |
(USA (2)) | |
Case-control | n=206 |
Adjusted for confounders | Odds ratios = 4.8–7.0 |
The dividing line between developed and developing countries = $1000 per capita purchasing power in 1995 (UNDP, 1998).116