Table 7

Summary of studies of ALRI in young children and indoor biomass smoke in developing countries

Case-control studies (n = 9)
(South Africa, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Tanzania, Gambia (2), Brazil, India, Argentina)
 6 adjusted for confoundersn=4311
 3 not significantOdds ratios = 2.2–9.9
Cohort studies (n = 4)
(Nepal, Kenya, Gambia (2))
 2 adjusted for confoundersn=910
 1 not significantOdds ratios = 2.2–6.0
Case-fatality study (n = 1)
(Nigeria)
 Hospitalised patientsn=103
Odds ratio = 4.8
Developed countries (n = 2)
(USA (2))
 Case-controln=206
 Adjusted for confoundersOdds ratios = 4.8–7.0
  • The dividing line between developed and developing countries = $1000 per capita purchasing power in 1995 (UNDP, 1998).116