Table 4

Indoor air pollution from biofuel combustion in developing countries

  • 4-a Approximately half “improved cookstoves”.

  • 4-b Cooks' exposures measure before and after introduction of improved stoves.

  • The studies are not completely comparable because of different measurement protocols and equipment but, nevertheless, are fairly consistent. Area concentrations are measured with stationary instruments placed indoors at breathing height. Exposure rates were measured with instruments worn by the cook during food preparation. For comparisons, the US 24-hour standard, not to be exceeded more than once per year, has been 260 μg/m3 and the Japanese one-hour standard is 200 μg/m3. Some of the studies listed here also measured other pollutants, including carbon monoxide and benzo(a)pyrene, which were sometimes found in concentrations well above those found in public settings in developed countries, as well as nitrogen and sulfur oxides and formaldehyde, which were found in concentrations roughly equal to the high end of those measured in indoor developed country conditions.

  • Modified from Pandey et al.49