OutcomeAdjusted forResult
FEV1, symptomsAssociation between SES and FEV1 but not symptoms
FEV1 Smoking, sex22.3/7.2% in low/high quintile SES had poor FEV1 (p<0.001)
FEV1, symptomsSmokingWeak associations with both symptoms and FEV1
FEV1, symptoms

SmokingAll indices of SES were associated with both symptoms and FEV1
FEV1 SmokingFEV1 reduced 10 ml per year without central heating
FEV1, symptomsSmoking, occupationInconsistent associations
FEV1, FVC, symptomsSmoking200–300 ml difference in FEV1, symptoms associated with SES
FEV1, FVC, symptomsSmoking, occupationSignificant association with FEV1 and some symptoms
FEV1, FVC, symptomsSmoking, sex, occupational exposureCOPD OR 4.2
Spirometric airflow limitation OR 6.3
FEV1, quintileNot adjusted15/26% of low SES in low/high quintile of FEV1
FEV1, hospital admissionSmoking300–400 ml difference in FEV1, hospital admission RR 3
Cause-specific mortalityUnadjustedChronic bronchitis RR 7.3; other respiratory RR 3.1
Chronic bronchitisIncome associated with chronic bronchitis
FEV1, FVCMultipleBoys FEV1 and FVC 8% lower, girls no difference