Table 4

Treatment of PAVM in different series of patients. Series completion dates are given as the year of publication if not specified

Series years (reference)No of patientsNo of PAVMSMortalityComplicationsMean
R-L shunt pre-post Rx
Residual R-L shuntFollow up (years)Complications during follow up
PleurisyParadoxical embolismBalloon deflationOther
Embolisation
Baltimore-Yale series
1978–1980 (118)516015%15%15%<240% recur
 pre 1983 (72)1058020%several10% ang44 to 24%
 1978–1987 (53)76276010%3%0%5% ang
 1991–1992 (117)359607%1%6%6% ang1–101.3% recur
 1978–1995 (78)4-151 4552031%4%2% ang53%Δ15% recur,
4% CVA
Hammersmith series
1984–1990 (82)1679013%1DVT28 to 13%
 1990–1995 (114)62807%0%1DVT12% recur
 1987–1994 (75)53>20009%2%3%3% ang23 to 9%60%©<42% cerebral abscess
Other series
pre 1991 (116)1958026%2%nil10% recur
 1986–1991 (73)822025%0%12% arryth25 to 13%100%<2
 1990–1995 (76)329209%4%2%2% arryth17 to 7%19%®mean 26% recur
 1989–1994 (77)1220036%nil73%™
 1994–1998 (87)714057% recur
Surgery
1897–1953 (58)1405%1 out of 3 recur
 1952–1967 (56)161–15
 pre 1958 (50)2392125%Minimal data reportedprog SOB
 pre 1963 (71)4-150 31403%1 out of 3
 1964–1992 (74)?1201 out of 1
Mayo Clinic
1952–1966 (59)2801–121 prog SOB,
1 CVA
 1952–1972 (52)3603 out of 31–124 prog SOB,
1 CVA
 1973–1984 (55)1805 out of 101–12
  • DVT = deep venous thrombosis; ang = angina; arryth = arrhythmia; recur = recurrence; prog = progressive; SOB = shortness of breath; CVA = cerebrovascular accident.

  • 4-150 Childhood series.

  • 4-151 All lesions had feeding artery diameters of 8 mm or more.

  • Mean values for R-L shunt stated; residual shunt measured or indicated by ©99mTc scanning, ®100% inspired oxygen, ™contrast echocardiography and Δpersistent hypoxaemia as defined in reference42.