Table 4

Longitudinal analysis: change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over five years and its association with change in apple intake and average apple consumption over the same period

(1) Age, height, age2 and height2(2) Model 1 + body mass index and smoking(3) Model 2 + social class, work exercise and leisure exercise(4)Model 3 plus total energy intake
Change in the no. of apples eaten per week4-150
Decrease >2249–21.9–76.6 to 32.9–25.5–79.7 to 28.7–23.5–77.5 to 30.5–23.2–77.3 to 30.9
Decrease ⩽2244–6.2–61.3 to 49.0–10.2–64.7 to 44.4–6.3–60.7 to 48.1–6.2–60.7 to 48.2
No change5790Baseline0Baseline0Baseline0Baseline
Increase ⩽2242–12.4–67.7 to 43.0–25.6–80.6 to 29.5–20.8–75.7 to 34.1–20.5–75.5 to 34.4
Increase >227817.5–35.3 to 70.314.2–38.6 to 67.016.5–36.3 to 69.216.7–36.1 to 69.5
Test for trend p = 0.136p = 0.164p = 0.175p = 0.174
Average apple consumption (no. per week)
<14010Baseline0Baseline0Baseline0Baseline
1 281–39.6–95.6 to 16.4–44.4–100.0 to 11.2–41.3–96.7 to 14.2–41.3–96.7 to 14.2
2–463347.01.0 to 92.925.7–21.1 to 72.531.3–15.5 to 78.131.9–15.0 to 78.8
⩾5 27774.117.7 to 130.637.7–20.5 to 95.946.3–11.9 to 104.447.7–10.7 to 106.2
Test for trend p = 0.004p = 0.200p = 0.108p = 0.098
• 4-150 Difference (phase II—phase I) multiplied by 5 and divided by length of follow up. Test for trend based on ungrouped variable.Test for trend based on ungrouped frequency variable.