Table 3

Studies with prevalence of depressive disorders

ReferenceNo. of patients (% males)Age (mean)Recruitment of patientsMean FEV1FEV1(%)3-cNo. of controls (% males)Age (mean)Recruitment of controls
Engström24 68 (65%)65Outpatient pulmonary clinic39.9%89 (56%)63Subsample recruited by telephone from random sample of Göteborg citizens matched for age and sex distribution
Isoaho25a 82 (75%)72Community sample (Lieto residents born in or before 1926)<66%3-d 246 (74%)MatchedThree matched subjects without respiratory symptoms for each patient from same community
McSweeney26 203 (79%)66Patients enrolled in nocturnal oxygen treatment trial0.75 l/s73 (76%)65Healthy individuals matched3-e with subsample of patient group
Prigatano27 89 (79%)61Patients enrolled in intermittent positive pressure breathing trial36%24 (84%)60Healthy individuals matchedf with subsample of patient group
Toshima23 119 (73%)63Patients enrolled in rehabilitation programme
Light28 45 (100%)63Outpatient pulmonary clinic29%
Karajgi32b 50 (62%)65Outpatient pulmonary clinic
Gordon31 13 (100%)63Outpatient pulmonary clinic0.70 l/s
Jones30 141 (65%)63Outpatient pulmonary clinic47%
Yellowlees29 50 (64%)65Patients admitted with exacerbation1.1 l/s
Depression diagnosis (cut off score)Methodology scoregPrevalence of depressionPost hoc power calculationh
HAD (⩾11)57%1% (NS)51%
Zung SDS (⩾45)528%19% (NS)40%
MMPI342%9% (p<0.05)99%
MMPI3 tscore 70 t score 59 (p<0.05)
CES-D (⩾19)329.4%
BDI (⩾15)342%
SCI/DSM III-R36% (major)
BDI (⩾15), Zung SDS (>44)2BDI 31% (mild) SDS 8%
HAD (⩾8)229%
Interview (DSM-III)

  • 3-a For each subject the FEV1/FVC value was determined, no clinical diagnosis of COPD was established.

  • 3-b No FEV1 value given, though a clinical diagnosis and chronic irreversible airflow obstruction is described.

  • 3-c FEV1 expressed as % of predicted value.

  • 3-d FEV1/FVC expressed as % of predicted value.

  • 3-e Matched for age, sex, race, education, and socioeconomic status.

  • fMatched for age, sex and education.

  • gRange 0–6.

  • hPost hoc power calculated using the nQuery Advisor program (second version), given α = 0.05, using a two tailed test.