Table 2

Tracheobronchomalacia: diagnosis, presentation, and cause of death in non-survivors (n = 28) ranked by cause of death (respiratory, part respiratory, non-respiratory) and duration of ventilation

Age (months) at diagnosisMain diagnosis (or presentation)Ventilation (days)Bronchogram severity scoreBronchoscopic abnormalityCause of death
TLBRBPB
3Truncus arteriosus63330Respiratory
11Tetralogy of Fallot172110TM, LBMRespiratory
8Vascular ring191020Respiratory
0(Respiratory failure)231220TMRespiratory
11Pulmonary atresia242202Respiratory
3Tetralogy of Fallot250132Respiratory
1Anomalous pulmonary venous drainage280230Respiratory
1Vascular ring290111NoneRespiratory
3Absent pulmonary valve351110Respiratory
5Vascular ring372020TM, RBMRespiratory
2Absent pulmonary valve562020Respiratory
0(Respiratory failure)601100Respiratory
5Cystic right lung651020Respiratory
4Pulmonary atresia682222LBM, PBMRespiratory
0Pulmonary stenosis723000TMRespiratory
13Hypoplastic aortic arch852220Hypoplastic LBRespiratory
0Truncus arteriosus852330Respiratory
11Atrioventricular septal defect60202Cardiorespiratory
0Pulmonary atresia150330Cardiorespiratory
0Interrupted aortic arch201210Cardiorespiratory
12(Respiratory failure)21000TMNeurological
3Vascular ring101100Neurological
9Treacher Collins syndrome100200LBMNeurological
7Transposition of great arteries110200TM, LBM, RBMMultisystem
0Coarctation aorta192000NoneGastrointestinal
2Pulmonary atresia193330Gastrointestinal
1VSD, ASD402100Multisystem
0Hypoplastic aortic arch1163333LBMHaemorrhage
  • T = trachea; LB = left main bronchus; RB = right main bronchus; PB = peripheral bronchi; TM = tracheomalacia; LBM = left main bronchomalacia; RBM = right main bronchomalacia; PBM = peripheral bronchomalacia; bronchogram severity score 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe (see Methods).