Table 6

Reserve drugs: dosages and side effects

Drug (once daily)ChildrenAdultsMain side effects
Streptomycin15 mg/kg15 mg/kg (max dose 1 g daily)Tinnitus, ataxia, vertigo, renal impairment
Amikacin15 mg/kg15 mg/kgAs for streptomycin
Capreomycin15 mg/kgAs for streptomycin
Kanamycin15 mg/kgAs for streptomycin
Ethionamide or prothionamide15–20 mg/kg<50 kg, 375 mg bdGastrointestinal; hepatitis; avoid in pregnancy
⩾50 kg, 500 mg bd
Cycloserine250–500 mg bdDepression: fits
Ofloxacin400 mg bdAbdominal distress, headache, tremulousness
Ciprofloxacin750 mg bdAs ofloxacin plus drug interactions
Azithromycin500 mgGastrointestinal upset
Clarithromycin500 mg bdAs for azithromycin
Rifabutin300–450 mgAs for rifampicin; uveitis can occur with drug interactions e.g. macrolides. Often cross resistance with rifampicin
Thiacetazone4 mg/kg150 mgGastrointestinal, vertigo, conjunctivitis, rash. AVOID if HIV positive (Stevens-Johnson syndrome)
Clofazimine300 mgHeadache, diarrhoea, red skin discolouration
PAS sodium300 mg/kg10 g om or 5 g bdGastrointestinal, hepatitis, fever, rash