Table 1

Summary of the studies included in the meta-analysis

ReferenceStudy design/blinded assessmentNumber of biopsies or patients1-151Prevalence of malignancyNeedle type1-152Radiological assistance1-153Immediate consultation with a pathologist
Knudsen et al 26 NA/NA1-150 128 patients68.0%AUSNA
Gaspariniet al 27 Retrospective/unblinded589 biopsies77.4%A, CFluo, CTYes
Garcia Rioet al 28 Prospective/blinded84 biopsies79.8%ACTYes
Burbank et al 29 Prospective/NA60 biopsies70.0%CCTYes
Targhettaet al 30 Prospective/unblinded64 biopsies82.8%BUSYes
Grode et al 31 Retrospective/blinded219 biopsies80.4%A, B, CFluoNo
Yuanet al 32 Retrospective/blinded30 biopsies80.0%AUSYes
Collins et al 33 Retrospective/unblinded129 biopsies91.5%B, CFluo, CTNo
Yazdiet al 34(A)Prospective/unblinded40 patients80.0%BFluoYes
Yazdi et al 34 (B)Prospective/unblinded40 patients80.0%CFluoYes
Veale et al 35 (A)Retrospective/unblinded95 biopsies76.8%AFluoYes
Veale et al 35 (B)Prospective/unblinded100 biopsies87.0%AFluoYes
Simpsonet al 36 Retrospective/blinded222 biopsies93.7%BFluoNo
Lovett et al 37 Retrospective/unblinded92 biopsies85.9%AFluoYes
Levineet al 38 Retrospective/NA58 biopsies58.6%NAFluoNA
Baslovet al 23 Retrospective/unblinded284 biopsies72.5%CFluoNo
Weisbrodet al 39 Prospective/unblinded126 biopsies71.4%CFluoNo
Stanleyet al 40 Retrospective/unblinded440 patients73.4%AFluo, CTYes
Winninget al 41 Retrospective/NA165 biopsies76.4%AFluoNA
Costrini42 Prospective/unblinded34 biopsies70.6%AFluo, CTYes
Nahmanet al 43 Retrospective/unblinded120 biopsies85.8%BFluoYes
Lees et al 44 Prospective/unblinded81 biopsies82.7%A, BFluo, CT, USNo
Greeneet al 45 Prospective/blinded145 biopsies81.4%BFluoNo
Crosby et al 46 Retrospective/unblinded164 patients92.1%AFluo, CT, USNo
Stevenset al 47 Prospective/unblinded348 patients64.1%A, B, CFluoNo
Harrisonet al 48 Prospective/unblinded85 biopsies77.6%CFluoYes
McEvoyet al 49 NA/NA79 patients86.1%CFluoNo
Johnsonet al 50 NA/NA200 biopsies68.5%A, BFluo, CTYes
Vineet al 51 NA/NA91 biopsies69.2%CFluoNA
Samuelssonet al 52 Retrospective/unblinded345 patients65.9%AFluoNo
Pilottiet al 53 Retrospective/unblinded130 patients88.5%AFluoNo
Pak et al 54 NA/NA52 biopsies82.7%A, BFluoYes
Jamieson et al 55 NA/NA84 biopsies78.6%A, BFluoYes
Allison et al 56 Retrospective/blinded147 patients78.9%BFluoYes
Westcottet al 57 Retrospective/unblinded400 patients73.3%BFluoNo
Taft et al 58 Retrospective/blinded100 biopsies80.0%BFluoNo
Poe et al 59 Retrospective/unblinded95 biopsies81.1%BFluoYes
Floweret al 60 Retrospective/unblinded282 biopsies71.3%BFluoNo
Sagel et al 61 Retrospective/unblinded1153 patients77.7%BFluoNo
Lalli et al 62 NA/NA1204 biopsies78.5%BFluoNA
Meyer et al 63 Prospective/unblinded39 patients87.2%AFluoNo
House et al 64 Retrospective/unblinded85 patients67.1%BFluoYes
Francis65 Retrospective/unblinded244 biopsies67.6%BFluoYes
Baker et al 66 Retrospective/unblinded22 biopsies81.8%BFluoYes
Pavy et al 67 Retrospective/unblinded56 biopsies91.1%BFluoNo
Stevenset al 68 69 Prospective/unblinded100 patients62.0%BFluoNo
Nasiell70 NA/NA138 biopsies60.1%BFluoNA
King et al 71 Prospective/unblinded59 patients81.4%AFluoNo
  • 1-150 NA = information not available

  • 1-151 Number of biopsies included in the statistical analysis; excludes patients lost to follow up.

  • 1-152 Needle type: A = aspiration needle; B = aspiration biopsy needle; C = cutting needle.

  • 1-153 Radiological assistance: Fluo = fluoroscopy; CT = chest tomodensitometry; US = ultrasound.