Table 5

Odds ratios (unadjusted and adjusted) with 95% confidence interval for urban versus rural residence for exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB10 and EIB15)

Odds ratio5-150 (95% confidence interval)
Unadjusted1.96 (1.41 to 2.72) n= 10521.68 (1.06 to 2.68) n=1052
Adjusted for age and sex1.80 (1.27 to 2.54) n=10521.43 (0.88 to 2.33) n=1052
Adjusted for age, sex, and host5-151 characteristics1.65 (1.10 to 2.47) n=7921.04 (0.60 to 1.83) n=792
Adjusted for age, sex, host, and environmental5-152characteristics1.21 (0.69 to 2.11) n=7750.61 (0.28 to 1.33) n=775
  • 5-150 Odds ratios were calculated with rural children as the reference category.

  • 5-151 Host characteristics were breast feeding for less than six months and a family history of asthma symptoms.

  • 5-152 Environmental characteristics were presence of animals in the homestead, ventilation (number of windows/room), parental education (years of education), use of biomass fuel and kerosene for cooking, and exposure to motor vehicle fumes on the way to school.