Table 4

Home environment characteristics of the children studied

Rural n (%)Urban n (%)
Smokingn = 450n = 537
Any smoker at home241 (53.6)178 (33.1)4-150
Shares bedroom with a smoker 27 (6.0) 31 (5.6)
Animals in the homesteadn = 461n = 555
 Cat124 (26.9)128 (23.1)
 Dog184 (39.8) 80 (14.4)4-150
 Chicken310 (67.1)124 (22.3)4-150
 Any animal363 (78.6)248 (44.7)4-150
Indoor animal4-151  10 (2.2) 67 (12.1)4-150
Animal sleeps indoor 52 (11.3) 66 (11.9)
Ventilationn = 462n = 555
 Mean (SD) no. of windows   1.12 (0.35)  1.29 (0.46)4-150
 Mean (SD) windows/room  4.27 (2.11)  4.67 (2.61)
 Mean (SD) household crowding   1.97 (1.00)  2.34 (1.7)4-150
Sleeping area characteristicsn = 421n = 586
 Sleeps in kitchen/single room 40 (8.7)125 (21.3)
 Shares bed337 (80.0)331 (56.5)4-150
Domestic fuel4-152 n = 462n = 555
 Wood428 (92.6) 35 (6.3)4-150
 Charcoal144 (31.2)437 (78.7)4-150
 Kerosene170 (36.8)450 (81.1)4-150
 Gas 17 (3.7)271 (48.8)4-150
 Electricity  6 (1.3)194 (35.0)4-150
Socioenvironmental characteristicsn = 460n = 554
 Mean (SD) years of education4-153   7.38 (3.2) 11.3 (3.3)4-150
Exposed to motor vehicle fumesn = 462n = 555
 Frequently 38 (8.2)373 (67.2)
 Sometimes207 (44.8)158 (28.5)
 Rarely215 (46.5) 24 (4.3)4-150
  • 4-150 Significant urban-rural differences (p≺0.05).

  • 4-151 Animal that spends most of the time indoors.

  • 4-152 Domestic fuel ever used in the household.

  • 4-153 Years of education of parent/guardian (head of household).