Table 4

Effects of ETS exposure on flow measures from cross-sectional studies in school aged children: studies included in meta-analyses

IDFVCFEV1MEFREEFRExposure (refers to current smoking status unless specified)Adjustments
p valuebSEp valuebSEp valuebSEp valuebSE
480.870−0.321.960.376−1.852.090.075−6.333.56Mother ⩾10/day v mother non-smokerHt, sex
490.6681.593.710.7770.913.210.811−0.923.850.604−2.564.93Children of smoking parents vs non-smoking parentsAge, ht, sex, wt
500.460−1.11.490.63−1.553.230.01−4.31.690.02−5.72.42At least mother smokes vs everyone non-smokerAge, ht, sex, area
510.4610.140.190.008−0.480.18Mother current vs never (at 1st examination)Age, sex, ht, wt, city
52>0.05n/an/a0.004−2.250.780.018−4.411.870.004−7.232.5Father smoking 10 cigs/day for 10 years vs non-smokerAge, ht, chest cir, wt, edu, area, resp. ill, FVC
530.173−32.20.032−−9.54.3Both parents smoke vs neitherActive smokers excluded, age, sex, ht
540.042−−21.170.025−3.851.72Both parents vs noneAge, ht, sex
550.071−31.660−6.11.650−14.42.67Maternal smoking vs notAge, ht, sex. Asthmatics excluded
560.146−−−−2.61.83Mother smokes vs notSex, ht
570.220−0.450.370.006−1.070.39Maternal smoking during preg. and 1st 2 yrs of life vs notAge, sex, ht, wt, area, edu, asthma, gas
580.376−0.70.790.023−1.80.790.006−5.21.89ETS daily in the home vs notAge, sex, ht, edu, gas, respiratory problems
591.00000.770.208−1.81.430.136−42.680.023−7.53.29Top cotinine quintile vs bottomAge, sex, ht, edu
600.59810.519.90.58712.523Both parents smoke vs noneAge, ht, area
610.3850.40.460.385−0.40.460.001−2.80.870.026−2.51.12Mother only vs neither parentAge, sex, ht, wt, + other. Asthmatics excluded
620.0583.751.980.9710.071.920.005−9.563.37Maternal ⩾1/2 pack/day vs less or non-smokerAge, sex, ht
630.000−20.540.000−2.20.510.000−4.80.970.010−3.31.28Top 5th of salivary cotinine vs non-detectableAge, sex, ht, area, active smoking
640.405−0.30.360.012−0.90.360.003−2.60.8720 cigs/day in the home vs noneAge, sex, ht, wt, area, edu, asth, gas
651.00000.250.000−−3.60.630.000−5.30.78Maternal smoking in past year vs notAge, sex, ht, wt, area, edu
660.5740.50.890.111−1.50.940.000−8.10.54Maternal smoking during pregnancy (y/n)Age,sex,ht,area, edu, current maternal smoking
670.263−−4.151.370.000−10.852.83Exposed to passive smoke all of life vs <10% of lifeAge, sex, ht, social class, gas
680.9300.161.830.312−1.781.760.075−6.083.420.452−3.85.05Top cotinine quartile vs bottomAge, ht, sex, BMI
690.0153.31.36No. of smokers in householdAge, ht, sex, area, sclass, gas, pets, allergy