Table 1

Standard clinical parameters and indices of neural respiratory drive on admission

Emergency departmentBaseline measurements
MEWS3 (0–7)2 (0–4)
FEV1 (l)0.60±1.65
FVC (l)1.53±0.82
PaO2 (kPa)10.0±3.5
PaCO2 (kPa)6.3±1.4
EMGpara%max (%)20.3±9.9
NRDI (AU)455±263
  • Data presented as median (range) and mean±SD.

  • EMGpara%max, EMGpara during tidal breathing normalised for maximum EMGpara produced during a sniff manoeuvre; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; MEWS, medical early warning score; NRDI, neural respiratory drive index (RR × EMGpara%max); Paco2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; Pao2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; RR, respiratory rate.