Table 3

Unadjusted relative risks associated with parental smoking: case-control studies

ReferenceAgeCasesControlsOdds ratios (95% CI) for smoking by:Dose-response Cotinine3-150
Either parentMotherFather
21 2–164002131.30 (0.93 to 1.83)
22 1–123024331.00 (0.70 to 1.42)No3-151
23 0–171372461.43 (0.92 to 2.23)0.71 (0.44 to 1.15)
24 3–1549771.97 (0.90 to 4.35)2.56 (1.23 to 5.32)0.87 (0.42 to 1.80)Yes+
25 3–141071211.13 (0.67 to 1.90)2.00 (1.16 to 3.48)Yes+
26 c. 91021051.43 (0.75 to 2.71)
27 3–44574571.16 (0.89 to 1.51)0.81 (0.62 to 1.06)
28 c. 5.51401402.12 (1.32 to 3.42)
29 5–11115960.76 (0.44 to 1.31)
30 5–719430.71 (0.22 to 2.22)+
31 3–153001000.90 (0.57 to 1.42)(few smoke)0.95 (0.60 to 1.50)
32 0–51582011.80 (1.20 to 2.70)
33 1.5–4751371.46 (0.83 to 2.58)1.70 (0.93 to 3.14)1.02 (0.42 to 2.46)No+
34 1–41933181.62 (1.13 to 2.32)
35 12–184864751.38 (1.18 to 1.61)0.96 (0.69 to 1.34)Yes
36 7–121931492.00 (1.22 to 3.27)+
37 7–93482721.57 (1.06 to 2.33)1.70 (1.23 to 2.34)1.23 (0.90 to 1.70)Yes+
38 6–18203203(few smoke)1.03 (0.63 to 1.70)
39 4–91311312.79 (1.66 to 4.67)Yes
  • 3-150 Urinary cotinine measured (not all such studies reported on dose-response relationships).

  • 3-151 Dose-response relationship only evident for skin prick negative subjects.