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A syndrome by any other name: playing the long-term outcome CARDS
  1. Andrea R Levine,
  2. Carl Shanholtz
  1. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Carl Shanholtz, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Cshanhol{at}

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The classic presentation of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by heterogeneity in demographics, aetiology, lung physiology and outcomes. Early in the pandemic of COVID-19, there was extensive debate in the medical literature and on social media about how COVID-19 respiratory disease differed from ‘classic’ ARDS, questioning whether it should be classified and treated as ARDS at all. As more data emerged regarding the epidemiology and physiology of COVID-related ARDS (CARDS), it has become clear that these syndromes are more alike than different, and there is no reason to stray from providing evidence-based management of ARDS.1

Against this backdrop, Latronico et al have measured the frequency and degree of impairments commonly associated with the postintensive care syndrome (PICS) in survivors of CARDS and compared them to …

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  • Contributors The authors contributed equally to the writing of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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