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Original research
Global and regional burden of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis from 1990 to 2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019


Background Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary sarcoidosis are common respiratory diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. The global burden and temporal trends of ILD and sarcoidosis are rarely explored.

Methods Using the classification ‘ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis’ from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 dataset, we described the age-standardised rates of incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and their average annual percentage change from 1990 to 2019 by sex, Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and region.

Results In 2019, the global incidence and mortality of ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis were 24.2 million and 169 833 cases, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the global incidence, deaths and DALYs due to ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis increased by 118.6%, 166.63% and 122.87% respectively. The global incidence of ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis was higher in men and was mainly concentrated among persons aged 70‒79 of both sexes. Significant regional differences could be seen in the disease burden of ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis: since 2006, high-SDI regions had higher age-standardised incidence rates but lower age-standardised death rates compared with the low-SDI regions.

Conclusions Our study suggests the incidence, mortality and DALYs from ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis are increasing globally. To reduce the ongoing burden of this condition, early diagnosis and treatment are vital, and more targeted and specific strategies should be established in high-burden regions. Differences in incidence and mortality across regions may reflect the influence of genetic, environmental, diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and health system factors.

  • sarcoidosis
  • clinical epidemiology
  • interstitial fibrosis

Data availability statement

Data are available in a public, open access repository. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. The full dataset in this study can be obtained from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation website (

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