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Original research
Global and regional burden of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis from 1990 to 2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019
  1. Xiaoqian Ma1,2,3,
  2. Lili Zhu1,2,
  3. Jonathan S Kurche4,
  4. Huijuan Xiao2,5,
  5. Huaping Dai1,2,
  6. Chen Wang1,2,5,6
  1. 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  2. 2National Center for Respiratory Medicine; Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, Beijing, China
  3. 3State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, National Centre for Respiratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China
  4. 4Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA
  5. 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship School of Clinical Medicine, Peking University, Beijing, Beijing, China
  6. 6Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
  1. Correspondence to Professor Chen Wang, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029, China; wangchen{at}pumc.edu.cn; Professor Huaping Dai; daihuaping{at}ccmu.edu.cn

Abstract

Background Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary sarcoidosis are common respiratory diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. The global burden and temporal trends of ILD and sarcoidosis are rarely explored.

Methods Using the classification ‘ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis’ from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 dataset, we described the age-standardised rates of incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and their average annual percentage change from 1990 to 2019 by sex, Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and region.

Results In 2019, the global incidence and mortality of ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis were 24.2 million and 169 833 cases, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the global incidence, deaths and DALYs due to ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis increased by 118.6%, 166.63% and 122.87% respectively. The global incidence of ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis was higher in men and was mainly concentrated among persons aged 70‒79 of both sexes. Significant regional differences could be seen in the disease burden of ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis: since 2006, high-SDI regions had higher age-standardised incidence rates but lower age-standardised death rates compared with the low-SDI regions.

Conclusions Our study suggests the incidence, mortality and DALYs from ILD and pulmonary sarcoidosis are increasing globally. To reduce the ongoing burden of this condition, early diagnosis and treatment are vital, and more targeted and specific strategies should be established in high-burden regions. Differences in incidence and mortality across regions may reflect the influence of genetic, environmental, diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and health system factors.

  • sarcoidosis
  • clinical epidemiology
  • interstitial fibrosis

Data availability statement

Data are available in a public, open access repository. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. The full dataset in this study can be obtained from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation website (http://www.healthdata.org/).

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Data availability statement

Data are available in a public, open access repository. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. The full dataset in this study can be obtained from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation website (http://www.healthdata.org/).

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Footnotes

  • XM and LZ contributed equally.

  • Contributors HD and CW contributed equally to this paper and are joint corresponding authors. XM, LZ, HX, HD and CW designed the study. XM was responsible for the data collection, literature review and data analysis. XM and LZ interpreted the data and prepared the first draft. XM, LZ, JSK, HX, HD and CW revised the draft. All authors had full access to all of the data (including statistical reports and tables) in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The corresponding authors attest that all listed authors meet authorship criteria and that no others meeting the criteria have been omitted.

  • Funding This study was financially supported by Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (number 2018-I2M-1-001), Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (number 2019PT320021), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (number 81870056). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, interpretation of data, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Map disclaimer The inclusion of any map (including the depiction of any boundaries therein), or of any geographic or locational reference, does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BMJ concerning the legal status of any country, territory, jurisdiction or area or of its authorities. Any such expression remains solely that of the relevant source and is not endorsed by BMJ. Maps are provided without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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