Background Daily levels of ambient air pollution and pollen may affect lung function but have rarely been studied together. We investigated short-term exposure to pollen and air pollution in relation to lung function in school-age children from a French population-based birth cohort.
Methods This study included 1063 children from the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study) cohort whose lung function and FeNO measurements were performed at age 8 years old. Exposure data were collected up to 4 days before testing. We estimated daily total pollen concentration, daily allergenic risk indices for nine pollen taxa, as well as daily concentrations of three air pollutants (particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3)). Children with similar pollen and air pollution exposure were grouped using multidimensional longitudinal cluster analysis. Associations between clusters of pollen and air pollution exposure and respiratory indices (FEV1, FVC, FeNO) were studied using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.
Results Four clusters of exposure were identified: no pollen and low air pollution (Cluster 1), grass pollen (Cluster 2), PM10 (Cluster 3) and birch/plane-tree pollen with high total pollen count (Cluster 4). Compared with children in Cluster 1, children in Cluster 2 had significantly lower FEV1 and FVC levels, and children from Cluster 3 had higher FeNO levels. For FEV1 and FVC, the associations appeared stronger in children with current asthma. Additional analysis suggested a joint effect of grass pollen and air pollution on lung function.
Conclusion Daily ambient chemical and biological air quality could adversely influence lung function in children.
- respiratory measurement
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IM and FR contributed equally.
Contributors IM contributed to the implementation of the PARIS birth cohort. IM and FR coordinated the PARIS cohort follow-up. JJ, NBe and MBH supervised the medical examination and lung function tests of the children at 8 years old at Trousseau Hospital. GL supervised the medical examination and lung function tests of the child participants at 8 years old at Necker Hospital. MT contributed to the interpretation of pollen data. HA performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. NBo contributed to the statistical analysis. IM and FR supervised data analysis and manuscript preparation. All authors were involved in the interpretation of the results, critically revised the manuscript and approved the final version as submitted.
Funding This work was supported by the Paris Municipal Department of Social Action, Childhood, and Health (DASES), the European collaborative programme MeDALL (FP7‐261357) and Paris Descartes University.
Competing interests HA, NB, MT, NBe, IM and FR have nothing to disclose. GL reports personal fees from Novartis Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, personal fees from YSSUP research, during the conduct of the study; personal fees from DBV technologies, personal fees from Aimune therapeutics, outside the submitted work. MB-H reports personal fees from Stallergene, personal fees from ALK, outside the submitted work; personal fees and non-financial support from Stallergene, personal fees and non-financial support from ALK, non-financial support from Astra Zeneca, outside the submitted work. JJ reports grants and personal fees from Novartis, grants and personal fees from AstraZeneca, personal fees from ALK, personal fees from Thermofischer, outside the submitted work.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The French ethics committees approved the PARIS study (permission nos. 031153, 051289, and ID-RCB 2009-A00824-53).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request.
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