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Integrated breathing and relaxation training (the Papworth Method) for adults with asthma in primary care: a randomised controlled trial
  1. Elizabeth A Holloway (e.holloway{at}
  1. University College London, United Kingdom
    1. Robert West (robert.west{at}
    1. UCL, United Kingdom


      Background: An integrated breathing and relaxation technique known as the Papworth Method (PM) has been implemented by physiotherapists since the 1960s for patients with asthma and dysfunctional breathing but no controlled trials have been reported. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the PM by means of a randomised controlled trial.

      Methods: Eighty-five patients (36 men) were individually randomised to the control group (n=46) or to intervention, receiving five PM sessions of treatment (n=39). Both groups received usual medical care. Assessments were undertaken at baseline, post-treatment (6 months after baseline) and at 12 months. The primary outcome measure was the St George's Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaire (SGRQ). Secondary outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Nijmegen dysfunctional breathing questionnaire and objective measures of respiratory function.

      Results: Post-treatment and 12-month data were available for 78 and 72 patients respectively. At the post-treatment assessment the mean score on the SGRQ Symptom subscale was 21.8 (SD=18.1) in the intervention group compared with 32.8 (SD=20.1) in the control group (p=0.001 for the difference). At the 12-month follow-up, the corresponding figures were 24.9 (SD=17.9) and 33.5 (SD=15.9) (p=0.007 for the difference). SGRQ Total scores, and HADS and Nijmegen scores were similarly significantly lower in the intervention than control group. The groups did not differ significantly following the treatment on objective measures of respiratory function except for relaxed breathing rate.

      Conclusions: The Papworth Method appears to ameliorate respiratory symptoms, dysfunctional breathing and adverse mood compared with usual care. Further controlled trials are warranted to confirm this finding, assess the effect in other patient groups and determine whether there is some effect on objective measures of respiratory function.

      • Asthma
      • Breathing dysfunction/hyperventilation
      • Breathing exercises
      • Randomised controlled trial
      • Relaxation exercises

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