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Skeletal muscle dysfunction is arguably the most important manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for patients. It contributes to an inability to go about activities of daily living decreases quality of life, increases office visits and healthcare expenditure.1 2 It is only recently this extrapulmonary complication of COPD has been given attention in terms of research and pharmacological interventions. However, the historical bias of a large body of medical research performed in men still overwhelms and limits our understanding of heterogeneity and sensitivity of responses to skeletal muscle dysfunction interventions in women.
Women with COPD have a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal comorbidities, muscle wasting and weakness than men.3 4 The sex hormones testosterone, oestrogen and progesterone …
Funding This study was supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01 HL153460).
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.