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Can’t see the wood for the trees: confounders, colliders and causal inference - a statistician’s approach

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  • Contributors RS and BH conceived of the presented ideas and commentary. Both authors contributed to the content and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported in part by grants ME1408-19894 from the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (BH), SZCZES18Y7 from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (BH) and NIH/NHLBI grant K25 HL125954 (RS).

  • Competing interests RS serves as a statistical editor on the Thorax Editorial Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published. Major changes have been made to the text in the body of the article and Table 1.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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