Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Images in Thorax
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation presenting as spontaneous haemothorax on transthoracic ultrasound
  1. Sze Shyang Kho1,
  2. Mei Ching Yong1,
  3. Swee Kim Chan1,
  4. Martin Ngie Liong Wong2,
  5. Siew Teck Tie1
  1. 1 Respiratory Medicine Unit (RCU), Hospital Umum Sarawak, Kuching, Malaysia
  2. 2 Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Heart Center, Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching, Malaysia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sze Shyang Kho, Respiratory Medicine Unit (RCU), Hospital Umum Sarawak, Kuching 93586, Malaysia; bzk99{at}

Statistics from


A 45-year-old man with no known chronic medical illness presented with insidious onset of exertional dyspnoea and left pleuritic chest pain. He was pale on physical examination and left chest percussion note was dull. Otherwise, he had no telangiectasia, cyanosis or finger clubbing. No family history of telangiectasia or bleeding episodes were reported, he also denied any history of epistaxis or haemoptysis. Chest roentograph on admission demonstrated left pleural effusion. Transthoracic ultrasound showed a large thin-walled elongated hypoechoic nodule surrounded by collapsed lung and loculated hyperechoic pleural fluid (figure 1A, arrow). Colour Doppler ultrasound established turbulent flow within the nodule (figure 1B, arrow) which raised the suspicion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM). His haemoglobin level was 5.5 g/dL. Urgent CT thorax revealed multiple PAVMs with the largest at the left lower lobe, arising …

View Full Text


  • Contributors SSK initiated the idea for case reporting, prepared the final copy of the manuscript and was involved in the initial diagnosis of the subject. MCY and SKC finalised the final copy of the manuscript and was involved in the management of the patient. MNLW performed the pulmonary angiographic study. STT supervised the whole procedure and reviewed the final manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.