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Use of β blockers and the risk of death in hospitalised patients with acute exacerbations of COPD
  1. M T Dransfield1,2,
  2. S M Rowe1,
  3. J E Johnson1,
  4. W C Bailey1,
  5. L B Gerald1
  1. 1
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  2. 2
    Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  1. Dr M Dransfield, 215 THT, 1900 University Blvd, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA; mdransfield99{at}


Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and predicts hospitalisation for acute exacerbation, in-hospital death and post-discharge mortality. Although β blockers improve cardiovascular outcomes, patients with COPD often do not receive them owing to concerns about possible adverse pulmonary effects. There are no published data about β blocker use among inpatients with COPD exacerbations. A study was undertaken to identify factors associated with β blocker use in this setting and to determine whether their use is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality.

Methods: Administrative data from the University of Alabama Hospital were reviewed and patients admitted between October 1999 and September 2006 with an acute exacerbation of COPD as a primary diagnosis or as a secondary diagnosis with a primary diagnosis of acute respiratory failure were identified. Demographic data, co-morbidities and medication use were recorded and subjects receiving β blockers were compared with those who did not. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of in-hospital death after controlling for known covariates and the propensity to receive β blockers.

Results: 825 patients met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 5.2%. Those receiving β blockers (n = 142) were older and more frequently had cardiovascular disease than those who did not. In multivariate analysis adjusting for potential confounders including the propensity score, β blocker use was associated with reduced mortality (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99). Age, length of stay, number of prior exacerbations, the presence of respiratory failure, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease or liver disease also predicted in-hospital mortality (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The use of β blockers by inpatients with exacerbations of COPD is well tolerated and may be associated with reduced mortality. The potential protective effect of β blockers in this population warrants further study.

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  • Funding: SMR is supported by NIH grant K23 DK075788-01.

  • Competing interests: None.

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