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α1-Antitrypsin deficiency • 3: Clinical manifestations and natural history
  1. M Needham,
  2. R A Stockley
  1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
    Professor R A Stockley
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK;


A review of the clinical manifestations of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, including lung disease and liver disease, and risk factors affecting the rate of decline in lung function in AAT deficient patients.

  • α1-antitrypsin deficiency
  • lung function
  • liver disease
  • smoking
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  • R A Stockley is a member of AIR (The Alpha1 International Registry).

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