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Chronic pulmonary function impairment caused by initial and recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis following treatment
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  1. Eva Hnizdoa,
  2. Tanusha Singha,
  3. Gavin Churchyardb
  1. aNational Centre for Occupational Health, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa, bAnglogold Health Services, Welkom, South Africa
  1. Dr E Hnizdo, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, MS PB 163, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA

Abstract

BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to establish the chronic effect of initial and recurrent treated pulmonary tuberculosis on impairment of lung function.

METHODS A total of 27 660 black South African gold miners who had reliable pulmonary function tests from January 1995 to August 1996 were retrospectively followed for the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis to 1970. The lung function measurements in 1995–6 were related to the number of previous episodes of tuberculosis and to the time that had lapsed from the diagnosis of the last episode of tuberculosis to the lung function test. Miners without tuberculosis or pneumoconiosis served as a comparison group.

RESULTS There were 2137 miners who had one episode of tuberculosis, 366 who had two, and 96 who had three or more episodes. The average time between the diagnosis of the last episode of tuberculosis and the lung function test was 4.6 years (range one month to 31 years). The loss of lung function was highest within six months of the diagnosis of tuberculosis and stabilised after 12 months when the loss was considered to be chronic. The estimated average chronic deficit in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after one, two, and three or more episodes of tuberculosis was 153 ml, 326 ml, and 410 ml, respectively. The corresponding deficits for forced vital capacity (FVC) were 96 ml, 286 ml, and 345 ml. The loss of function due to tuberculosis was not biased by the presence of HIV as HIV positive and HIV negative subjects had similar losses. The percentage of subjects with chronic airflow impairment (FEV1 <80% predicted) was 18.4% in those with one episode, 27.1% in those with two, and 35.2% in those with three or more episodes of tuberculosis.

CONCLUSIONS Tuberculosis can cause chronic impairment of lung function which increases incrementally with the number of episodes of tuberculosis. Clearly, prevention of tuberculosis and its effect on lung function is important and can be achieved by early detection and by reduction of the risk of tuberculosis through intervention on risk factors such as HIV, silica dust exposure, silicosis, and socioeconomic factors.

  • chronic lung function impairment
  • tuberculosis
  • silica dust
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