BACKGROUND: A systematic quantitative review of the evidence relating parental smoking to the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms was conducted amongst school age children. METHODS: Sixty relevant studies were identified after consideration of 1593 articles selected by electronic search of the Embase and Medline databases using keywords relevant to passive smoking in children. The search was completed in April 1997 and identified 25 studies of asthma, 41 of wheeze, 34 of chronic cough, seven of chronic phlegm and six of breathlessness which were included in a quantitative overview. RESULTS: The pooled odds ratios for either parent smoking were 1.21 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.34) for asthma, 1.24 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.31) for wheeze, 1.40 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.53) for cough, 1.35 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.62) for phlegm, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.59) for breathlessness. Adjustment for confounding had little effect. Evidence of heterogeneity between studies appeared largely explicable by publication bias with a superfluity of small studies with large odds ratios. However, excluding these had little effect on the pooled odds ratios. The prevalence of all symptoms increased with the number of parents who smoked. While maternal smoking had a greater effect than paternal smoking, the effect of father only was clearly significant. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between parental smoking and respiratory symptoms seems very likely to be causal given statistical significance, robustness to adjustment for confounding factors, consistency of the findings in different countries, and evidence of dose response. The raised risk in households where the father, but not the mother, smoked argues for a postnatal effect.
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