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Interleukin 10 (IL-10) regulation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes.
  1. L. Armstrong,
  2. N. Jordan,
  3. A. Millar
  1. Department of Medicine, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Westbury on Trym, Bristol, UK.


    BACKGROUND: Regulation of the inflammatory response within the human lung is essential to prevent this important part of the normal host defence response becoming a pathological process. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of shock and in granuloma formation, tissue necrosis, and fibrosis in many organ systems including the lung. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) has been proposed as having an inhibitory effect on the production of several inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha. METHODS: The effect of IL-10 administration on TNF-alpha production was explored in human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes from matched individuals. The effects of IL-10 on TNF-alpha protein production were determined by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), whereas the TNF-alpha mRNA response was established by Northeren blotting using a TNF-alpha specific oligonucleotide probe. The protein synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cyclohexamide were utilised to monitor IL-10 effects on mRNA degradation and de novo protein synthesis, respectively. RESULTS: The lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF-alpha production in alveolar macrophages was reduced from 3.508 (0.629) to 2.035 (0.385) ng/ml by 100 U/ml IL-10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in peripheral blood monocytes was reduced from 2.035 (0.284) to 0.698 (0.167) ng/ml. TNF-alpha gene expression was also inhibited in both alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes; lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha mRNA was reduced by 47.8 (15.2)% and 83.1 (4.2)%, respectively, by IL-10. The IL-10 mediated suppression of TNF-alpha mRNA was unaffected by addition of cyclohexamide, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis was not required for TNF-alpha inhibition. mRNA stability experiments indicated no acceleration in lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha mRNA degradation in response to IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha expression and release from alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes, and thus it may have an important role in the cytokine network of the pulmonary immune response.

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