Review of an annual series of cases of empyema seen at a regional cardiothoracic unit showed that six out of 25 were due to Streptococcus milleri. The details of the cases are summarised. This organism is now an important cause of empyema, occurring much more commonly in men than in women; but since it is highly sensitive to penicillins permanent resolution can be achieved with antibiotic treatment combined with open or closed drainage.
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