Table 4

Lower respiratory tract infections and asymptomatic single new virus detections, risk ratios and attributable fractions by respiratory virus in 151 children from the ORChID birth cohort (n=5267 swabs)

VirusLRTI-associated single new virus detections
n=959 swabs
Asymptomatic single new virus detections
n=4308 swabs
Risk ratio*
(95% CI); P value
Attributable fraction in the exposed (%, 95% CI)†
n (%)n (%)
Single detections
 All HRV126 (13.1)‡328 (7.6)1.1 (1.0 to  1.2);  0.228 (−5 to  20)
 HRV-A57 (6.0)122 (2.8)1.2 (1.0 to  1.5);  0.1117 (−4 to  34)
 HRV-B8 (0.8)41 (1.0)0.8 (0.4 to  1.5);  0.43−31 (−157 to  33)
 HRV-C68 (7.1)137 (3.2)1.3 (1.1 to  1.6);  0.0122 (5 to 36)
 IFV-A2 (0.2)2 (0.0)1.6 (0.4, to 5.7);  0.5036 (−131 to 82)
 IFV-B0 (0.0)2 (0.0)0.0 (0.0 to  0.0); <0.0010 (0 to  0)
 PIV-12 (0.2)1 (0.0)2.5 (0.8 to 7.8);  0.1359 (−28 to  87)
 PIV-21 (0.1)0 (0.0)n/cn/c
 PIV-310 (1.0)11 (0.3)2.0 (1.2 to  3.3);  0.00650 (18 to  70)
 RSV-A15 (1.6)14 (0.3)3.0 (2.1 to  4.5); <0.00167 (51 to  78)
 RSV-B8 (0.8)3 (0.1)3.2 (1.8 to  5.5); <0.00168 (45 to  82)
 HCoV-OC439 (0.9)8 (0.2)2.3 (1.4 to  3.8);  0.00156 (29 to 73)
 HCoV-NL637 (0.7)8 (0.2)1.7 (0.9 to  3.3);  0.1042 (−10 to  70)
 HCoV-229E1 (0.1)4 (0.1)1.2 (0.2 to  7.7);  0.8319 (−407 to 87)
 HCoV-HKU12 (0.2)10 (0.2)0.8 (0.2 to  2.9);  0.71−28 (−376 to  66)
 HMPV6 (0.6)4 (0.1)3.2 (1.7 to  6.1); <0.00169 (43  to  83)
 AdV5 (0.5)16 (0.4)1.0 (0.4 to  2.5);  0.96−2 (−156 to  59)
 WU-PyV5 (0.5)15 (0.3)1.4 (0.6 to 3.5);  0.4828 (−80 to  71)
 KI-PyV8 (0.8)34 (0.8)1.2 (0.7 to  2.2);  0.5517 (−53 to  56)
 HBoV-110 (1.0)31 (0.7)1.3 (0.8 to  2.2);  0.3324 (−30 to  55)
 Any virus217 (22.6)491 (11.4)1.4 (1.2 to  1.5); <0.00127 (18 to  35)
New codetections§
 ≥2 viruses58 (6.0)62 (1.4)2.2 (1.7 to  3.0); <0.00155 (41 to  66)
  • Statistically significant risk ratios and attributable fractions have been highlighted in bold.

  • *Adjusted for repeated measures within children using sandwich estimators.

  • †CI for attributable fractions were calculated from CI  for corresponding risk ratios.

  • ‡Individual HRV species do not add up to ‘all HRV’ detections because of a combination of more than one HRV species detected within the same LRTI episode, or single new virus detection episodes where HRV-positive specimens could not be sequenced.

  • §Includes 110 (51 symptomatic) new codetections and another 10 codetections with 2 and 3 viruses codetected, respectively where at least one codetected virus was a new detection.

  • AdV, adenovirus;   HBoV-1, human bocavirus-1; HCoV, human coronavirus; HMPV, human metapneumovirus; HRV, human rhinovirus; IFV, influenza virus; KI-PyV, KI polyomavirus; LRTI, lower respiratory tract infection;  n/c, not calculable as there were no cases in the asymptomatic group;, PIV, parainfluenza virus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; WU-PyV, WU polyomavirus.