Table 2

HRs (95% CIs) of COPD by quintiles of fruit and vegetables consumption in 44 335 Swedish men, 1998–2012

 Quintiles (Q), servings/day
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5p for trend
Total fruits and vegetables (median)<2.0 (1.4)2.0–2.9 (2.5)3.0–3.9 (3.4)4.0–5.2 (4.5)≥ 5.3 (6.6)
 No. of cases614418348296242
 Person-years110 745116 687119 154118 657118 722
 Age-adjusted SIR per 100 000565390335290224
 Age-adjusted HR1.000.68 (0.60–0.78)0.58 (0.51–0.66)0.49 (0.43–0.56)0.39 (0.33–0.45)<0.0001
 Age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted HR1.000.79 (0.69–0.89)0.75 (0.66–0.85)0.66 (0.57–0.75)0.55 (0.47–0.64)<0.0001
 Multivariable HR*1.000.86 (0.76–0.98)0.84 (0.74–0.97)0.76 (0.65–0.88)0.65 (0.55–0.76)<0.0001
Fruit consumption (median)< 0.5 (0.3)0.5–0.7 (0.6)0.8–1.1 (1.0)1.2–1.8 (1.5)≥1.9 (2.5)
 No. of cases536417344338283
 Person-years103 166124 777117 483119 185119 355
 Age-adjusted SIR per 100 000580402328303237
 Age-adjusted HR1.000.67 (0.59–0.76)0.55 (0.48–0.62)0.50 (0.44–0.58)0.39 (0.34–0.46)<0.0001
 Age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted HR1.000.81 (0.71–0.92)0.74 (0.65–0.85)0.75 (0.66–0.87)0.61 (0.53–0.71)<0.0001
 Multivariable HR*†1.000.90 (0.79–1.03)0.85 (0.73–0.97)0.88 (0.76–1.02)0.73 (0.62–0.85)0.0002
Vegetable consumption (median)<1.2 (0.8)1.2–1.8 (1.6)1.9–2.5 (2.2)2.6–3.5 (3.0)≥ 3.6 (4.6)
 No. of cases578418368299255
 Person-years110 402116 846118 041119 978118 698
 Age-adjusted SIR per 100 000508387354290251
 Age-adjusted HR1.000.76 (0.67–0.86)0.69 (0.60–0.78)0.56 (0.49–0.65)0.48 (0.42–0.56)<0.0001
 Age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted HR1.000.83 (0.73–0.94)0.82 (0.72–0.93)0.70 (0.61–0.80)0.62 (0.53–0.71)<0.0001
 Multivariable HR*†1.000.95 (0.83–1.08)0.98 (0.85–1.13)0.89 (0.77–1.04)0.82 (0.70–0.97)0.02
  • *Adjusted for age (years, continuous), education (less than high school, high school or university), body mass index (<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9 or ≥30 kg/m2), total physical activity (MET×hour/day, quintiles), smoking status and pack-years of smoking (never; past <20, 20–39 or ≥40 pack-years; or current <20, 20–39 or ≥40 pack-years), intake of energy (kcal/day, quintiles), alcohol consumption (g/day, quintiles) and modified recommended food score (scores, continuous) and non-recommended food score (scores, continuous).

  • †Fruits and vegetables were included in the same multivariable model.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent of energy expenditure (kcal/kg×hour); SIR, standardised incidence rate.