Table 4

HRs (95% CIs) of COPD by categories of subgroups of fruit and vegetables consumption in 27 852 ever-smokers, 1998–2012

 Categories
Fruit consumptionp for trend
Apples or pears, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.2)≥ 1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men130/14241250/20 866203/4174
 Multivariable HR*1.000.88 (0.72–1.08)0.70 (0.54–0.90)0.003
Berries, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.1)≥ 1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men193/2 8451 207/21 04934/1 653
 Multivariable HR*1.001.13 (0.95–1.34)0.85 (0.58–1.25)0.08
Bananas, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.5)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men135/17351343/22 357134/2435
 Multivariable HR*1.001.01 (0.84–1.23)1.14 (0.88–1.48)0.63
Citrus fruits, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.1)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men235/28811 113/20 460100/1477
 Multivariable HR*1.000.92 (0.78–1.08)1.02 (0.79–1.33)0.22
Vegetable consumption
 Green leafy vegetables, servings/day (median)†<0.2 (0.1)0.2–0.9 (0.4)≥1.0 (1.1)
 No. of cases/no. of men884/10 264755/14 746103 / 2 842
 Multivariable HR*1.000.86 (0.77–0.97)0.62 (0.49–0.79)0.0001
Cruciferous vegetables, servings/day (median)‡<0.2 (0.1)0.2–0.9 (0.3)≥1.0 (1.2)
 No. of cases/no. of men829/10 454836/15 83277/1566
 Multivariable HR*1.001.05 (0.94–1.18)1.32 (1.01–1.72)0.19
Root vegetables, servings/day (median)§<0.2 (0.1)0.2–0.9 (0.4)≥1.0 (1.1)
 No. of cases/no. of men643/9658936/15 698163/2496
 Multivariable HR*1.000.96 (0.86–1.07)0.96 (0.79–1.16)0.89
Peppers, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.2)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men360/39751039/19 67529/964
 Multivariable HR*1.001.00 (0.87–1.15)0.63 (0.42–0.96)0.02
Tomatoes, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.2)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men174/20981191/20 493162/3349
 Multivariable HR*1.000.86 (0.72–1.01)0.96 (0.76–1.22)0.77
Onions, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.5)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men79/10021 426/23 79762/1256
 Multivariable HR*1.001.07 (0.84–1.36)0.98 (0.68–1.43)0.93
Garlic, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.1)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men560/6959804/16 57436/670
 Multivariable HR*1.000.93 (0.82–1.05)0.91 (0.64–1.31)0.79
Green peas, servings/day (median)0 (0)0.1–0.9 (0.1)≥1.0 (1.0)
 No. of cases/no. of men212/29031 285/22 35719/355
 Multivariable HR*1.000.96 (0.82–1.13)1.11 (0.66–1.88)0.27
  • *Adjusted for age (years, continuous), education (less than high school, high school or university), body mass index (<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9 or ≥30 kg/m2), total physical activity (MET×hour/day, quintiles), pack-years of smoking (<20, 20–39 or ≥40 pack-years), intake of energy (kcal/day, quintiles), alcohol consumption (g/day, quintiles), modified recommended food score (scores, continuous) and non-recommended food score (scores, continuous), and mutually adjusted for each other.

  • †Including lettuce and spinach.

  • ‡Including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts.

  • §Including carrot and beetroot.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent of energy expenditure (kcal/kg×hour).