Table 1

Characteristics for participants at baseline (EGEA2) according to cured meat intake (n=971)

 Cured meat intakep Value
<1 s/w
(n=181)
1–3.9 s/w
(n=462)
≥4 s/w
(n=328)
Age, years45±1644±1640±16<0.001
Men, n (%)60 (33)221 (48)195 (59)<0.001
BMI, kg/m223.7±3.824.5±4.124.6±4.40.07
BMI, kg/m2, n (%)0.01
 <22.585 (47)172 (37)131 (40)
 22.5–24.940 (22)128 (28)71 (22)
 25–27.434 (19)77 (17)54 (16)
 27.5–29.913 (7)44 (9)32 (10)
 ≥309 (5)41 (9)40 (12)
Smoking (ever), n (%)82 (45)209 (45)179 (55)0.03
Higher education, n (%)87 (48)254 (55)153 (47)0.06
Total energy intake, kcal/day2187±5932357±6062657±650<0.001
Leisure-time physical activity, METs/w44±1645±1745±170.72
Ever asthma at EGEA2, n (%)68 (38)184 (40)156 (48)0.04
Asthma symptom score at EGEA2, n (%)0.11
 086 (47)231 (50)142 (43)
 139 (22)116 (25)70 (21)
 2–556 (31)115 (25)116 (36)
Modified Western pattern*−1.5±3.3−0.5±3.31.6±4.4<0.001
Prudent pattern*0.5±2.40±1.9−0.2±2.40.002
Foods/nutrients intake
 Cured meat, serving/day0.7±0.42.3±0.76.2±3.5<0.001
 Fruits, serving/day3.9±2.83.7±2.83.6±3.00.47
 Vegetables, serving/day3.9±2.13.7±2.03.8±2.20.83
 Whole grain cereals, serving/day0.6±1.00.5±0.80.4±0.80.07
 Fish, serving/day0.4±0.30.4±0.30.5±0.40.18
 Vitamin C, mg/day252±136240±124248±1330.50
 Sodium, g/day3.2±1.13.5±1.14.3±1.2<0.001
 Total fat, g/day88±27100±29115±33<0.001
 Saturated fat, g/day33±1038±1245±13<0.001
  • Data are expressed as mean±SDs, or number of subjects (%). Overall p values were calculated from ANOVA for continuous variables, from Mantel–Haenszel χ2 test for ordinal categorised variables (BMI classes and asthma symptom score), and from Pearson χ2 test for other categorised variables.

  • *Modified Western pattern, prudent pattern: identified using CFA. Mean individual scores obtained from CFA are shown.

  • BMI, body mass index; CFA, confirmatory factor analysis; METs/w, metabolic equivalents per week; s/w, serving/week.