Table 4

Prevalence rates of corticosteroid-induced morbidity and comparisons between cohorts in the BTS Registry

Disease/adverse eventSevere corticosteroid- dependent asthma (442)
n (%)
Severe non- corticosteroid-dependent asthma (328)
n (%)
OR (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)†OR (95% CI)‡p Value
Endocrine disorder
 IDDM2 (0.5)1 (0.3)1.00
 NIDDM64 (14)15 (5)3.55 (1.98 to 6.35)3.50 (1.94 to 6.24)3.48 (1.94 to 6.26)<0.001
Cardiac disease
 Hypertension98 (22)49 (15)1.61 (1.11 to 2.36)1.59 (1.07 to 2.36)1.59 (1.07 to 2.37)0.012
 Cardiovascular disease27 (6)25 (8)0.78 (0.44 to 1.37)0.74 (0.41 to 1.33)0.71 (0.39 to 1.30)0.41
 Hypercholesterolaemia76 (17)24 (7)2.61 (1.60 to 4.23)2.64 (1.60 to 4.37)2.59 (1.57 to 4.30)<0.001
Osteoporosis and bone disease
 Osteoporosis57/319 (18)18/122 (15)1.26 (0.71 to 2.24)1.27 (0.71 to 2.28)1.21 (0.67 to 2.17)0.44
 Osteopenia117/319 (37)39/122 (32)1.22 (0.78 to 1.90)1.23 (0.79 to 1.92)1.15 (0.73 to 1.81)0.36
 Fracture13 (3)1 (0.3)0.007
Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2)237 (54)147 (45)1.43 (1.07 to 1.91)1.41 (1.06 to 1.88)1.47 (1.10 to 1.97)0.016
 Weight gain55 (12)3 (1)<0.001
Sleep disorders
 Sleep disturbance18 (4)2 (1)0.003
 Obstructive sleep apnoea51 (12)13 (4)3.14 (1.68 to 5.89)3.07 (1.64 to 5.77)2.80 (1.48 to 5.29)<0.001
Eye disease
 Cataracts25 (6)0 (0)0.002
 Glaucoma8 (2)6 (2)0.97 (0.33 to 2.83)0.93 (0.31 to 2.74)0.83 (0.28 to 2.50)0.98
Dyspeptic disorders283 (64)157 (48)2.00 (1.49 to 2.68)1.94 (1.44 to 2.61)1.96 (1.45 to 2.64)<0.001
Psychiatric disorders
 Depression/anxiety/low mood125 (28)46 (14)2.36 (1.62 to 3.44)2.39 (1.64 to 3.49)2.57 (1.76 to 3.76)<0.001
Skin conditions16 (4)1 (0.3)0.002
Corticosteroid-related diseases
 Cushingoid symptoms27 (6)1 (0.3)<0.001
 Adrenal insufficiency12 (3)1 (0.3)0.010
 Corticosteroid-induced proximal myopathy1 (0.2)01.00
  • *OR adjusted for hospital.

  • †OR adjusted for age.

  • ‡OR adjusted for gender.

  • BMI, body mass index; BTS, British Thoracic Society; IDDM, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.