Table 5

Results of the final models for the entire panel during the summer period: estimated effect size (change in ΔPEF (l/min) or symptom odds per pollutant rise across interquartile range) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mass concentration of particulates and gaseous pollutants

Lag
Pollutant01 day2 days3 days7 day mean
*p<0.05 (t test) to determine probability that effect size different from zero (PEF) or 1 (symptom odds).
PM 10 (μg/m 3 ): size of interquartile range 9.0
ΔPEF
Morning
    Effect size−1.56−0.100.903.36*1.24
    Upper 95% CI0.682.333.365.616.29
    Lower 95% CI−3.81−2.53−1.561.12−3.82
Afternoon
    Effect size−1.28−1.56−0.15−0.05−0.85
    Upper 95% CI0.670.411.852.033.40
    Lower 95% CI−3.23−3.54−2.15−2.13−5.09
Prevalent symptoms
Cough
    Effect size1.13*1.040.960.89*0.86
    Upper 95% CI1.231.141.050.961.07
    Lower 95% CI1.050.950.880.820.71
Ill
    Effect size1.010.970.960.970.96
    Upper 95% CI1.131.111.081.101.41
    Lower 95% CI0.890.850.840.860.65
SOB
    Effect size0.981.061.000.961.27
    Upper 95% CI1.141.251.161.111.78
    Lower 95% CI0.850.910.860.820.91
Wake
    Effect size0.920.75*0.910.921.24
    Upper 95% CI1.100.911.101.082.05
    Lower 95% CI0.770.620.740.780.75
Wheeze
    Effect size0.960.900.880.82*0.95
    Upper 95% CI1.141.061.050.961.53
    Lower 95% CI0.830.760.740.690.59
PM 2.5 (μg/m 3 ): size of interquartile range 6.3
ΔPEF
Morning
    Effect size−1.490.212.5*3.41*3.90
    Upper 95% CI0.672.554.725.4410.33
    Lower 95% CI−3.65−2.120.281.40−2.53
Afternoon
    Effect size−0.49−0.780.570.16−0.08
    Upper 95% CI1.451.162.492.175.27
    Lower 95% CI−2.43−2.72−1.35−1.85−5.43
Prevalent symptoms
Cough
    Effect size1.13*1.040.940.89*0.81
    Upper 95% CI1.221.131.020.961.06
    Lower 95% CI1.040.940.870.820.62
Ill
    Effect size1.021.000.960.970.68
    Upper 95% CI1.131.131.071.091.13
    Lower 95% CI0.910.890.850.860.41
SOB
    Effect size1.041.080.970.931.16
    Upper 95% CI1.201.251.131.081.77
    Lower 95% CI0.900.930.840.810.76
Wake
    Effect size0.930.81*0.910.971.04
    Upper 95% CI1.100.981.091.131.90
    Lower 95% CI0.780.670.770.830.57
Wheeze
    Effect size1.020.980.870.85*0.96
    Upper 95% CI1.191.161.020.991.81
    Lower 95% CI0.880.840.740.720.51
NO 2 (ppb): size of interquartile range 7.0
ΔPEF
Morning
    Effect size0.461.201.87*1.540.91
    Upper 95% CI2.333.093.683.334.73
    Lower 95% CI−1.42−0.700.06−0.26−2.90
Afternoon
    Effect size−0.77−0.67−0.020.081.21
    Upper 95% CI0.760.871.551.734.33
    Lower 95% CI−2.31−2.20−1.58−1.55−1.91
Prevalent symptoms
Cough
    Effect size1.09*0.980.93*0.940.87
    Upper 95% CI1.171.061.001.011.04
    Lower 95% CI1.010.910.870.870.74
Ill
    Effect size1.010.990.950.960.78
    Upper 95% CI1.121.101.071.081.09
    Lower 95% CI0.910.890.840.850.56
SOB
    Effect size1.111.041.020.991.14
    Upper 95% CI1.241.181.151.111.46
    Lower 95% CI0.990.930.910.890.89
Wake
    Effect size0.990.870.980.960.99
    Upper 95% CI1.171.011.131.111.42
    Lower 95% CI0.830.740.850.840.70
Wheeze
    Effect size0.970.910.890.890.93
    Upper 95% CI1.101.031.041.041.39
    Lower 95% CI0.850.800.770.760.62
Ozone (ppb): size of interquartile range 10.2
ΔPEF
Morning
    Effect size−1.61−2.39−3.42*−2.51−5.66*
    Upper 95% CI1.010.34−0.720.20−0.09
    Lower 95% CI−4.24−5.11−6.12−5.23−11.21
Afternoon
    Effect size−0.13−2.32−0.122.02−0.14
    Upper 95% CI2.400.042.404.385.04
    Lower 95% CI−2.66−4.68−2.64−0.34−5.34
Prevalent symptoms
Cough
    Effect size0.991.071.051.020.95
    Upper 95% CI1.081.181.161.131.19
    Lower 95% CI0.890.970.960.930.76
Ill
    Effect size0.911.081.111.111.16
    Upper 95% CI1.051.291.291.271.60
    Lower 95% CI0.790.910.950.960.85
SOB
    Effect size1.021.041.071.161.35
    Upper 95% CI1.221.241.271.381.94
    Lower 95% CI0.850.870.910.980.95
Wake
    Effect size0.980.980.900.961.18
    Upper 95% CI1.191.181.081.181.87
    Lower 95% CI0.810.810.750.790.75
Wheeze
    Effect size0.83*0.8*0.83*0.880.88
    Upper 95% CI0.980.931.001.061.38
    Lower 95% CI0.710.690.700.740.57
SO 2 (ppb): size of interquartile range 2.2
ΔPEF
Morning
    Effect size0.910.290.952.7*6.83*
    Upper 95% CI2.782.142.824.3812.69
    Lower 95% CI−0.95−1.56−0.921.030.98
Afternoon
    Effect size−0.89−0.02−0.410.02−2.48
    Upper 95% CI0.831.651.241.612.59
    Lower 95% CI−2.61−1.68−2.05−1.58−7.56
Prevalent symptoms
Cough
    Effect size1.08*1.041.020.980.96
    Upper 95% CI1.151.111.091.051.22
    Lower 95% CI1.020.970.950.910.75
Ill
    Effect size1.051.021.000.941.07
    Upper 95% CI1.141.121.101.021.47
    Lower 95% CI0.960.940.920.860.78
SOB
    Effect size0.981.001.020.920.92
    Upper 95% CI1.101.131.161.051.36
    Lower 95% CI0.870.890.900.810.62
Wake
    Effect size1.001.020.950.941.13
    Upper 95% CI1.141.161.081.061.88
    Lower 95% CI0.870.890.840.830.67
Wheeze
    Effect size1.051.001.060.940.90
    Upper 95% CI1.191.131.201.071.33
    Lower 95% CI0.920.880.940.830.60