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Asthma in Latin America
  1. Erick Forno1,
  2. Mudita Gogna1,
  3. Alfonso Cepeda2,
  4. Anahi Yañez3,
  5. Dirceu Solé4,
  6. Philip Cooper5,6,
  7. Lydiana Avila7,
  8. Manuel Soto-Quiros7,
  9. Jose A Castro-Rodriguez8,
  10. Juan C Celedón1
  1. 1Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Allergy, and Immunology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  2. 2Fundación Hospital Universitario Metropolitano, Laboratorio de Alergia e Inmunología, Universidad Metropolitana, Barranquilla, Barranquilla, Colombia
  3. 3Division of Allergy and Immunology, Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Hospital Aeronáutico Central, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  4. 4Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil
  5. 5Laboratorio de Investigaciones FEPIS, Quinindé, Esmeraldas, Ecuador
  6. 6Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK
  7. 7Hospital Nacional de Niños, San José, Costa Rica
  8. 8Departments of Pediatrics and Public Health, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  1. Correspondence to Dr Juan C Celedón, Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Allergy, and Immunology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 4401 Penn Avenue, Suite 9130, Rangos Building, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA; juan.celedon{at}chp.edu

Abstract

Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves).

  • Asthma
  • Asthma Epidemiology
  • Asthma Genetics
  • Paediatric asthma

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