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Chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children: a longitudinal study
  1. Richard D Pitcher1,
  2. Carl J Lombard2,
  3. Mark F Cotton3,
  4. Stephen J Beningfield4,
  5. Lesley Workman5,
  6. Heather J Zar5
  1. 1Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  2. 2Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
  3. 3Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  4. 4Division of Radiology, Department of Radiation Medicine, New Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  5. 5Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  1. Correspondence to Professor Richard D Pitcher, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Avenue, Tygerberg, Cape Town 7505, South Africa; pitcher{at}sun.ac.za

Abstract

Background There is limited knowledge of chest radiographic abnormalities over time in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

Objective To investigate the natural history of chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children, and the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods Prospective longitudinal study of the association of chest radiographic findings with clinical and immunological parameters. Chest radiographs were performed at enrolment, 6-monthly, when initiating ART and if indicated clinically. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as normal, mild or moderate severity and considered persistent if present for 6 consecutive months or longer. An ordinal multiple logistic regression model assessed the association of enrolment and time-dependent variables with temporal radiographic findings.

Results 258 children (median (IQR) age: 28 (13–51) months; median CD4+%: 21 (15–24)) were followed for a median of 24 (18–42) months. 70 (27%) were on ART at enrolment; 130 (50%) (median age: 33 (18–56) months) commenced ART during the study. 154 (60%) had persistent severe radiographic abnormalities, with median duration 18 (6–24) months. Among children on ART, 69% of radiographic changes across all 6-month transition periods were improvements, compared with 45% in those not on ART. Radiographic severity was associated with previous radiographic severity (OR=120.80; 95% CI 68.71 to 212.38), lack of ART (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.29 to 2.27), enrolment age <18 months (OR=1.39; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.83), diffuse, severe radiographic abnormality at enrolment (OR=2.18; 95% CI 1.33 to 3.56), hospitalisation for lower respiratory tract infection during the previous 6 months (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.30) and length of follow-up: at 18–24 months (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.49 to 0.90), and at 30–54 months (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.56).

Conclusions Most children had severe radiographic abnormalities persisting for at least 18 months. ART was beneficial, reducing the risk of radiographic deterioration or increasing the likelihood of radiological improvement.

  • Paediatric Lung Disaese
  • Imaging/CT MRI etc

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