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  1. Graham L Hall (graham.hall{at}
  1. Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Australia
    1. Peter D Sly (peters{at}
    1. TVW Telethon Institute for Child Health, Australia
      1. Takayoshi Fukushima
      1. Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Australia
        1. Merci M Kusel (mercik{at}
        1. Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Australia
          1. Peter J Franklin (peterf{at}
          1. University of Western Australia, Australia
            1. Friedrich Horak (fritz.horak{at}
            1. Princess Margaret Hospital, Australia
              1. Hilary Patterson (patt0110{at}
              1. Princess Margaret Hospital, Australia
                1. Catherine Gangell (cgangell{at}
                1. University of Western Australia, Australia
                  1. Stephen Stick (stephen.stick{at}
                  1. Princess Margaret Hospital, Australia


                    Introduction: Monitoring of respiratory function is important in the diagnosis and management of respiratory disease. The forced oscillation technique requires minimal patient cooperation and is ideal for the determination of respiratory function in young children. This study aimed to develop reference ranges and to document the repeatability in healthy young children using commercially available forced oscillation equipment

                    Methods: The forced oscillation technique, utilizing a pseudo-random noise forcing signal between 4 and 48 Hz (I2M, ChessMedical, Ghent, Belgium), was used to measure respiratory function in healthy young children. Repeatability over a 15 minute period was also assessed. Regression equations and standardized Z scores were determined for respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) at 6, 8 and 10 Hz.

                    Results: Respiratory function was obtained in 158 healthy children, aged 2 to 7 years and between 92 and 127 cm in height. Oscillatory respiratory mechanics exhibited linear relationships with height. Within test variability for resistance ranged between 6-9% and between 17-20% for reactance. Resistance and reactance did not change significantly over a 15 minute period.

                    Conclusions: Reference ranges for respiratory impedance variables in healthy children between 2 and 7 years of age are presented. The short-term repeatability of forced oscillatory variables in this age group are reported allowing appropriate cut-off values for therapeutic interventions to be defined.

                    • forced oscillations
                    • reference data
                    • respiratory function
                    • young children

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