Article Text

PRO: confronting resistance to rule-based medicine is essential to improving outcomes
  1. John D Blakey1,
  2. Michael Brown2,3,
  3. James Pinchin2,
  4. Mark Barley4,
  5. Sarah Sharples3
  1. 1Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
  2. 2Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  3. 3Human Factors Research Group, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  4. 4Department of Anaesthetics, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr John D Blakey, Clinical Sciences, Centre for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L5 3QA, UK;jblakey{at}


The past 20 years have seen two great changes in the practice of medicine: the widespread adoption of evidence-based medicine, and the increasing challenge of managing complex multimorbid patients. Both these developments have resulted in clinical rules and protocols becoming ever more abundant and increasingly critical to delivering safe and effective patient care. These evidence-based clinical rules perform at least as well as expert opinion, and the increasing volume and quality of available clinical data suggests their performance could continue to improve. This article considers why clinicians deviate from effective rules, highlighting key issues such as the persisting culture of heroism, institutional inertia, deference to authority and personal heuristics. We argue that better rules can be created, and that clinical improvements will follow if there is a ‘common knowledge’ of these rules. Furthermore, we argue that there is a ceiling to the effectiveness of any rule, even one as simple as ensuring hand hygiene, unless individuals are held accountable for transgressions.

  • Psychology

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