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The path to personalised medicine in COPD
  1. Alvar Agusti
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alvar Agustí, Institut del Tòrax, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona and CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias, Villarroel 170, Escala 3, Planta 5, Barcelona 08036, Spain; alvar.agusti{at}


Our understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has changed dramatically over the past two decades. We have moved from an airflow limitation-centric view to the realisation that COPD is a complex and heterogeneous disease, which leads inevitably to the need for personalising the assessment and treatment of patients with COPD. This review provides a brief perspective of the extraordinary transition that the COPD field has experienced in the last two decades, and speculates on how it should/can move forward in the near future in order to really achieve the goal of personalising COPD medicine in the clinic.

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