Influence of anxiety on health outcomes in COPD
- Mark D Eisner1,2,
- Paul D Blanc1,2,
- Edward H Yelin3,
- Patricia P Katz3,
- Gabriela Sanchez4,
- Carlos Iribarren4,
- Theodore A Omachi1
- 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
- 2Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
- 3Institute for Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
- 4Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, USA
- Correspondence to Dr Mark D Eisner, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, M1097, San Francisco, CA 94143-0111, USA;
- Received 26 August 2009
- Accepted 11 December 2009
Background Psychological functioning is an important determinant of health outcomes in chronic lung disease. To better define the role of anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a study was conducted of the inter-relations between anxiety and COPD in a large cohort of subjects with COPD and a matched control group.
Methods Data were used from the FLOW (Function, Living, Outcomes, and Work) cohort of patients with COPD (n=1202) and matched controls without COPD (n=302). Anxiety was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Results COPD was associated with a greater risk of anxiety in multivariable analysis (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.072 to 3.18). Among patients with COPD, anxiety was related to poorer health outcomes including worse submaximal exercise performance (less distance walked during the 6-min walk test: −66.3 feet for anxious vs non-anxious groups; 95% CI −127.3 to −5.36) and a greater risk of self-reported functional limitations (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.71 to 3.41). Subjects with COPD with anxiety had a higher longitudinal risk of COPD exacerbation in Cox proportional hazards analysis after controlling for covariates (HR 1.39; 95% CI 1.007 to 1.90).
Conclusion COPD is associated with a higher risk of anxiety. Once anxiety develops among patients with COPD, it is related to poorer health outcomes. Further research is needed to determine whether systematic screening and treatment of anxiety in COPD will improve health outcomes and prevent functional decline and disability.
Funding National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/National Institutes of Health R01HL077618 and K24 HL 097245. Other funders: NIH.
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the University of California, San Francisco Committee on Human Research and the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute's institutional review board and all participants provided written informed consent.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.