Thorax 64:353-358 doi:10.1136/thx.2007.090241
  • Paediatric lung disease

Fungi and pollen exposure in the first months of life and risk of early childhood wheezing

  1. K G Harley1,
  2. J M Macher2,
  3. M Lipsett2,
  4. P Duramad1,
  5. N T Holland1,
  6. S S Prager3,
  7. J Ferber1,
  8. A Bradman1,
  9. B Eskenazi1,
  10. I B Tager1
  1. 1
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
  2. 2
    California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA
  3. 3
    Central Coast Allergy and Asthma, Salinas, California, USA
  1. Dr K G Harley, Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, UC Berkeley, 2150 Shattuck Ave, Suite 600, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA; kharley{at}
  • Received 7 September 2007
  • Accepted 5 December 2008
  • Published Online First 24 February 2009


Background: Many studies have found that the risk of childhood asthma varies by month of birth, but few have examined ambient aeroallergens as an explanatory factor. A study was undertaken to examine whether birth during seasons of elevated ambient fungal spore or pollen concentrations is associated with risk of early wheezing or blood levels of Th1 and Th2 type cells at 24 months of age.

Methods: 514 children were enrolled before birth and followed to 24 months of age. Early wheezing was determined from medical records, and Th1 and Th2 type cells were measured in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. Ambient aeroallergen concentrations were measured throughout the study period and discrete seasons of high spore and pollen concentrations were defined.

Results: A seasonal pattern was observed, with birth in autumn to winter (the spore season) associated with increased odds of early wheezing (adjusted odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.4). Increasing mean daily concentrations of basidiospores and ascospores in the first 3 months of life were associated with increased odds of wheeze, as were increasing mean daily concentrations of total and specific pollen types. Levels of Th1 cells at age 24 months were positively associated with mean spore concentrations and negatively associated with mean pollen concentrations in the first 3 months of life.

Conclusions: Children with higher exposure to spores and pollen in the first 3 months of life are at increased risk of early wheezing. This association is independent of other seasonal factors including ambient levels of particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ⩽2.5 μm and lower respiratory infections.


  • Funding: Funding for this study was received from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  • Competing interests: None.

  • Ethics approval: Study procedures were approved by the University of California, Berkeley Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects.