HIV associated pulmonary emphysema: a review of the literature and inquiry into its mechanism
- 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
- 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Colorado, USA
- 3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Colorado, USA
- 4Division of Cardiopulmonary Pathology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- Dr I Petrache, Indiana University, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Van Nuys Medical Science Building, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS224, Indianapolis, IN 46202–5120, USA;
- Received 1 February 2007
- Revised 17 April 2007
- Accepted 9 May 2007
Chronic lung diseases are increasingly recognised complications of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of these, pulmonary emphysema, characterised by permanent destruction of the lung parenchyma distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by various degrees of inflammation, is emerging as a distinct source of morbidity for patients infected with HIV. Similarly, HIV is now frequently cited as a susceptibility factor for the development of emphysema, independent of cigarette smoking status. The presence of common coexistent confounding factors that may predispose patients to chronic lung injury such as drugs, opportunistic infections and malnutrition, limits the scope of studies of direct mechanisms involved in HIV associated emphysematous lung disease. We review the clinical studies supporting a direct association between HIV infection and emphysema. Recent developments in the basic understanding of HIV infection and emphysema are also reviewed, since they may aid in understanding the pathobiology of HIV associated emphysema. The authors emphasise how HIV infection may affect cytotoxic lymphocyte activation, lung capillary endothelial cell injury and apoptosis, sphingolipid imbalance and oxidative stress in the lung. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV associated pulmonary emphysema may provide clues and therapeutic targets that have broader application in this disease, including cigarette smoke induced emphysema.
Competing interests: None.