Locally generated particulate pollution and respiratory symptoms in young children
- 1MRC Institute for Environment and Health, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
- 2Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland
- 3Institute for Lung Health, Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
- Correspondence to:
Dr J Grigg
Division of Child Health, Institute for Lung Health, Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK;
- Received 16 December 2004
- Accepted 7 December 2005
- Published Online First 5 January 2006
Background: Particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) from fossil fuel combustion is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children and adolescents. However, the effect of PM10 on respiratory symptoms in young children is unclear.
Methods: The association between primary PM10 (particles directly emitted from local sources) and the prevalence and incidence of respiratory symptoms was studied in a random sample cohort of 4400 Leicestershire children aged 1–5 years surveyed in 1998 and again in 2001. Annual exposure to primary PM10 was calculated for the home address using the Airviro dispersion model and adjusted odds ratios (ORS) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each μg/m3 increase.
Results: Exposure to primary PM10 was associated with the prevalence of cough without a cold in both 1998 and 2001, with adjusted ORs of 1.21 (1.07 to 1.38) and 1.56 (1.32 to 1.84) respectively. For night time cough the ORs were 1.06 (0.94 to 1.19) and 1.25 (1.06 to 1.47), and for current wheeze 0.99 (0.88 to 1.12) and 1.28 (1.04 to 1.58), respectively. There was also an association between primary PM10 and new onset symptoms. The ORs for incident symptoms were 1.62 (1.31 to 2.00) for cough without a cold and 1.42 (1.02 to 1.97) for wheeze.
Conclusion: In young children there was a consistent association between locally generated primary PM10 and the prevalence and incidence of cough without a cold and the incidence of wheeze which was independent of potential confounders.
Published Online First 5 January 2006
Nevil Pierse was supported by a grant from the UK Department of Health (number 0020014). Claudia Kuehni was supported the Swiss National Science Foundation (PROSPER grant number 3233-069348 and 3200-069349, and SNF grant 823B - 046481). Recruitment of the cohort and initial data collection was funded by a research grant from Trent NHS Executive (Trent Research Scheme, RBF number 98XX3). Support was also provided by Medisearch (UK) and University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust Department of Research and Development.
Competing interests: none declared.