The case is described of a 31 year old woman who presented with complaints of recurrent haemoptysis coinciding with menstruation. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple purplish-red submucosal lesions on the right side of the trachea and bilateral bronchial trees which appeared during her menses and regressed in the intermenstrual periods. Brush cytology revealed cell clusters consistent with endometrial origin. Bronchial angiography demonstrated prominent vasculature at the right paratracheal area and bilateral bronchial trees corresponding to the lesions seen on bronchoscopic examination. Her haemoptysis was satisfactorily controlled by danazol therapy and follow up bronchoscopy showed disappearance of the tracheobronchial lesions. To our knowledge this is the first case of thoracic endometriosis with tracheal involvement.
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