After the death from massive haemoptysis of two neutropenic patients who had developed apparent pulmonary mycetomas, two subsequent patients underwent successful resection of similar lesions. Histological examination of these lesions confirmed that these so called mycetomas were masses of devitalized lung tissue infiltrated with fungus. The term mycotic lung sequestrum is therefore proposed to distinguish this condition from a fungus ball arising in a previously formed cavity. A review of 34 similar cases reported previously showed that haemoptysis occurred in about half of the cases and was fatal in just over half of these. Medical treatment appears to have little impact on survival and early consideration of surgical intervention is important.
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