Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is often indistinguishable by clinical and radiographic criteria from opportunistic pneumonia. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumonia may frequently be present in the same patient. Previous observers have commented on the repeated failure to establish a diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Thirteen fibreoptic bronchoscopies were performed in a series of 11 patients with thoracic manifestations of AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma was identified in transbronchial or bronchial biopsy specimens in four patients. This diagnostic yield is comparable to that obtained only by open lung biopsy procedures in previous reports. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may contribute to the correct management of the patient and facilitate an accurate prognosis by differentiating between opportunistic pneumonia and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.
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