Cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in man: effect of arterial filtration.
Cerebral blood flow was recorded in 39 patients undergoing cardiac surgery by intraarterial injection of xenon 133. There were three subgroups of patients: 10 patients had a 20 micron arterial filter (Johnson) and 11 a 40 micron filter (Pall), and 18 had no arterial filtration. All patients had a 40 micron (Pall) filter in the coronary suction line. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow occurred during extracorporeal circulation (p less than 0.0001). For all patients cerebral blood flow increased from a resting prebypass level of 30 to 46 and 57 ml/100 g a minute during initial and stable hypothermic extracorporeal circulation respectively. Both measurements were obtained at 26 degrees C and the recordings were made on average 12 and 55 minutes after the extracorporeal circulation was started. During rewarming cerebral blood flow increased to 64, 53, 41, and 36 ml/g a minute at 31 degrees, 33 degrees, 35 degrees, and 37 degrees C respectively, and when measured four and 16 minutes on average after bypass it was 44 and 41 ml/100 g a minute. This general brain hyperperfusion was noticed in all patients with a high enough mean blood pressure to produce hyperaemia. Interposing 20 and 40 micron arterial filters reduced cerebral blood flow but did not prevent this hyperaemia. The cerebral autoregulation, which maintains a constant cerebral blood flow within wide limits of perfusion pressures, was not affected by arterial filtration. The lower limit of blood pressure at which a further reduction in blood pressure was followed by a reduction in cerebral blood flow was around 60 mm Hg in all three groups.