Subclinical inflammatory activity may be one of the factors which influences the variable natural history of farmers' lung. Serum lysozyme (LYS) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been measured in 52 farmers with a previous history of farmers' lung and in 51 healthy control farmers. The group with farmers' lung assessed during the winter, although having had no recent acute symptoms, had significantly higher levels of LYS and ACE compared to both healthy control farmers seen in winter and farmers' lung subjects seen in summer. There was a mild but significant negative correlation between LYS and farm size in the farmers' lung subjects assessed in winter. The results suggest that active inflammation may be present in subjects with farmers' lung in the absence of acute symptoms during the season when dust exposure occurs as the result of feeding cattle.