The lungs of two patients who died eight months and 64 months after repair of a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia on the first day of life were examined. Lung volumes were appropriate for the size of the children, and the ratio of right lung volume to left lung volume was also normal in both patients. The lungs, however, were grossly abnormal with evidence of enlargement and destruction of respiratory tissue. The left lung was affected more than the right in both subjects. In one patient the total number of alveoli in the lungs was similar to that of normal children of the same age, but this was because the right lung had more than twice as many alveoli as the left lung. It appears that alveolar multiplication is impaired after repair of diaphragmatic hernia. The number of bronchioles was reduced in the infant with very few alveoli, and there may have been too few bronchioles in the other patient.
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